Where plastic surgery operations are performed, these are undertaken by competent surgeons and only in a hospital environment.
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N.B.:the interventions are done in a hospital under the direction of qualified surgeons
“Plastic or Cosmetic surgery is an optional procedure that is performed on normal parts of the body with the only purpose of improving a person’s appearance and/or removing signs of aging, studies prove that this type of surgery play an important role in a person’s self-esteem because the physical appearance is an important status equivalent to gender or race and by making changes to the body it contributes not only to the patient’s physical appearance but also to the mental health of the patient.
In 2006, nearly 11 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone. The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has increased over 50 percent since the start of the century. Nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with the five most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, nasal surgery, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery looks at the statistics for thirty-four different cosmetic procedures. Nineteen of the procedures are surgical, such as rhinoplasty or facelift. The nonsurgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal. In 2010, their survey revealed that there were 9,336,814 total procedures in the United States. Of those, 1,622,290 procedures were surgical (p. 5). They also found that a large majority, 81%, of the procedures were done on Caucasian people (p. 12). The increased use of cosmetic procedures crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U.S., with increases seen among African-Americans and Hispanic Americans as well as Caucasian Americans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2.2 billion business. Cosmetic surgery is now very common in countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. In Asia, cosmetic surgery has become an accepted practice, and countries such as China and India has become Asia’s biggest cosmetic surgery markets. Thailand is also one of the main cosmetic surgery markets in Asia, in particular for affordable breast augmentation and sex reassignment surgery, with international patients coming from Australia, Europe and neighboring Asian countries.
The most prevalent aesthetic/cosmetic procedures include:
- Abdominoplasty (« tummy tuck »): reshaping and firming of the abdomen
- Blepharoplasty (« eyelid surgery »): reshaping of the eyelids or the application of permanent eyeliner, including Asian blepharoplasty
- Phalloplasty (« penile liposuction ») : construction (or reconstruction) of a penis or, sometimes, artificial modification of the penis by surgery, often for cosmetic purposes
- Breast augmentations (« breast implant » or « boob job »): augmentation of the breasts by means of fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel prosthetics, which was initially performed to women with micromastia
- Reduction mammoplasty (« breast reduction »): removal of skin and glandular tissue, which is done to reduce back and shoulder pain in women with gigantomastia and/or for psychological benefit men with gynecomastia
- Mastopexy (« breast lift »): Lifting or reshaping of breasts to make them less saggy, often after weight loss (after a pregnancy, for example). It involves removal of breast skin as opposed to glandular tissue
- Buttock augmentation (« butt implant »): enhancement of the buttocksusing silicone implants or fat grafting (« Brazilian butt lift ») and transfer from other areas of the body
- Buttock lift: lifting, and tightening of the buttocks by excision of redundant skin
- Chemical peel: minimizing the appearance of acne, chicken pox, and other scars as well as wrinkles (depending on concentration and type of agent used, except for deep furrows), solar lentigines (age spots, freckles), and photodamage in general. Chemical peels commonly involve carbolic acid (Phenol), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), glycolic acid (AHA), or salicylic acid (BHA) as the active agent.
- Labiaplasty: surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia
- Lip enhancement: surgical improvement of lips’ fullness through enlargement
- Rhinoplasty (« nose job »): reshaping of the nose
- Otoplasty (« ear surgery »/ »ear pinning »): reshaping of the ear, most often done by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head.
- Rhytidectomy(« face lift »): removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face
- Browplasty (« brow lift » or « forehead lift »): elevates eyebrows, smooths forehead skin
- Midface lift (« cheek lift »): tightening of the cheeks
- Chin augmentation (« chin implant »): augmentation of the chin with an implant, usually silicone, by sliding genioplasty of the jawbone or by suture of the soft tissue
- Cheek augmentation (« cheek implant »): implants to the cheek
- Orthognathic Surgery: manipulation of the facial bones through controlled fracturing
- Fillers injections: collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections, such as hyaluronic acid
- Laser Skin Rejuvenation or Resurfacing:The lessening of depth in pores of the face
- Liposuction (« suction lipectomy »): removal of fat deposits by traditional suction technique or ultrasonic energy to aid fat removal
- Brachioplasty (« Arm lift »): reducing excess skin and fat between the underarm and the elbow … » Wikipedia definition