Stem cells – The principle use of the cells of the stromal vascular fraction.
Adipose tissue can be white, beige or brown, depending on the number of mitochondrions that it contains, which are the small energetic centrals of the cell. Brown adipose tissue is the richest and also the least abundant in mitochondrions. Studies seem to show that by limiting calories, as well as undertaking cryotherapy on the whole body, it is possible for white adipose tissue to turn to brown. It contains important secretory properties that we will not go into detail about here.
As a defining feature, adipose tissue is abundant and easy to remove. We only use the cells of the stromal vascular fraction in a private clinic. This is made up of two parts, as its name suggests, one part being stromal and the other hemapoietic.
Up until now we thought that hemapoietic cells came from bone marrow. Now research appears to tell us that they also exist inside adipose tissue. These are mast cells, whose role in immune response is very important. These mast cells could represent an important source of new therapeutic remedies for immune diseases, such as diabetes, osteo-arthritis etc.
Importance of the adipose tissue
In obese people, the hypertrophy of the visceral fat is the main factor of the chronic inflammation, which is responsible for a raised death rate. Often associated with a metabolic syndrome, it is often accompanied by a resistance to insulin and all of the secondary effects and reactions that go with it. From a histological point of view, adipose tissue is the centre point for many ischemic zones due to the difficulty in passing blood to these adipocytes which end up shrinking and dying due to the lack of oxygen.
Also, fatty tissue is where numerous toxins are stored.
Sugar is one of the biggest plagues of the last century, given the diabetes that follows it. Diabetes is one of the most under-estimated diseases of the modern age. Visceral fat can influence our health.
On the other hand, due to its stromal vascular fraction, adipose tissue represents a fountain of molecules which can intervene in the regulatory process of our homeostasis, and almost benefit auto-regeneration mechanisms.
In adipose tissue we can observe mature adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction.
The stroma, which is just the matrix, is primarily made up of collagen, fibroblasts and vessels. Around these vessels we can observe niches in the mesenchymal cells. The function of this ‘niche’ is important, because it constitutes an essential functional unity. This is their ideal place. The niche decodes the information coming from all over, and organises the differentiation between pericytes and mesenchymal cells.
These have two main characteristics – they are immunomodulatory and have trophicities. They can stick to plastic.
Once the mesenchymal cell is stimulated, it gives off exosomes which are small double membraned blisters just like our cells. These blisters contain a series of cytokines (growth factors) as well as fragments of ribonucleic acid. When they fuse with the target cells, they release their content and there is a series of reactions that follows, and some end in the differentiation between the parent cell.
A mesenchymal cell is able to give cells to the mesodermal lineage, that is to say, adipocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chrondoblasts and myocytes as well as myocardium contractile cells.
What treatments will there be in the future?
The cells of the stromal vascular fraction appear to have a bright future, as they are in abundance and easily accessible. Also, they are blessed with plasticity and are capable of initiating complex tissue regeneration processes by way of an optimal environment. The importance of mitochondrionsas well as redox metabolism influences the quality of the result.
The stromal vascular fraction of the adipose tissue opens up many therapeutic possibilities which are still at the scientific research stage, even though more than 1000 publications are already in existence in disciplines such as cardiology, trauma, orthopaedics, neurology, etc.
In aesthetic medicine I practice bio stimulation which was the object of a thesis from the University of Barcelona for more than 8 years with some very encouraging results. Now, other indications are appearing such as treatment for baldness or a simple anti ageing strategy. Regenerative medicine is beginning to be more and more widely used with differing levels of success. The only disadvantage is its high cost due to the necessary infrastructures but also the multidisciplinary approach that it imposes to have a high chance of an optimal result.
What can be done to optimise the potential of injected cells?
Take charge of our own health and act on different factors, thus allowing for the acid-alkaline balance and redox metabolism. Besides, to support the ensemble of resulting reactiong from all these cells, we also need numerous mitochondrions, and molecules of adenosine triphosphate.
Standard operational protocol for the obtaining of stromal vascular fraction of the autologous adipose tissue activated. (Click here to download the PDF)
Therapy using adult stem cells derived from the stromal vascular fraction is now part of the therapeutic arsenal of medicine. However, it is not yet on the ‘treatment rules list’. It is important to point out that treatment by stromal vascular fraction cells has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration Council of the USA, or by the works council.
The science of adult stem cell treatment is still in its early stages and for the majority of illnesses or medical conditions, no prospective clinical test, randomised or studies over a long period of time has yet been carried out, and for this reason no guarantee of security or effectiveness can be given or implied.
For more information, please consult the informed consent webpage